Ecological and microbiological monitoring of drinking water quality in the city of Saratov
CHAPTER 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS OF RESEARCHES 2.1. Objects of research.2.2. Methods of research.2.2.1. Microbiological methods of research.2.2.2. Ecological research methods.2.2.3. Sanitary and toxicological research.2.2.4. Statistical processing of the results. CHAPTER 3. ECOLOGICAL-MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF THE QUALITY OF WATER OF THE RIVER OF THE VOLGA IN THE PLACES OF WATER-SURVIVAL. SARATOV.3.1. Estimation of the number of microorganisms of different ecological-trophic groups in the places of water intake in Saratov. 3.2. Assessment of water toxicity in places of water intake in Saratov.3.3. Evaluation of the processes of water self-purification in the places of water intake in the city of Saratov. CHAPTER 4. ANALYSIS OF QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION OF WATER MICROBOCENOISS IN THE WATER-SIZE PLANTS. SARATOVA.4.1. Characteristics of microbiocenoses of the Volga River in places of water intake.4.2. Determination of antibiotic resistance of isolated strains of heterotrophic bacteria. CHAPTER 5. LABORATORY-ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER TEST FROM THE PLACES OF URBAN WATER RESERVOIR AND IN WATER TREATMENT PROCESS 5.1. Comparative analysis of laboratory-analytical water quality data from various water intakes in Saratov. 5.2. Evaluation of the effectiveness of individual stages of water treatment according to the traditional scheme. The efficiency of application of combined water purification methods. CHAPTER 6. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY-TOXICO-LOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF WATER TREATMENT ON THE GENERAL METHODS AND IMPROVED TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEME.6.1. Determination of the presence of micromycetes in drinking water in the city of Saratov and the development of methods for their elimination.6.2. Sanitary and toxicological studies of water from different places of water intake in Saratov, processed according to traditional and optimal technological schemes. The introduction of the thesis (part of the abstract) On the theme "Ecological and microbiological monitoring of drinking water quality in the city of Saratov". The relevance of the topic. The water of open reservoirs is a natural habitat for a variety of microorganisms coexisting in the form of complex associations - micro biocoenoses, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of which can vary significantly under anthropogenic influences (Netrusov et al., 2000; 2005; Bukharin, Nemtseva, 2008). These changes must be taken into account when conducting microbiological monitoring of water bodies. The problem of population security. Saratov high-quality drinking water is relevant and is associated with a change in the natural properties of the water of the Volgograd Reservoir, the main source of water supply, under the influence of anthropogenic factors. The main sources of pollution, the Volga River are discharges of domestic, industrial and storm sewage of various degrees of pollution. Of the total volume of wastewater, industrial plants account for about 27%, the rest for housing and communal services (State report "On Sanitary and Epidemiological Well-being in the Saratov Region", 2002-2007). Chemical pollutants that enter the aquatic environment under natural conditions and with wastewater adversely affect the functioning of associations of microorganisms participating in natural self-purification processes of water to the sanitary regime of water bodies (Mitchell, 1996; Rozanov et al., 2001; 2003; Eliseev and Lutsevich, 2005; Poddubnaya, 2007). In: as a result of reagent treatment of water in treatment and water treatment facilities, xenobiotics and metabolites of microbial associates can be transformed to form substances possessing other organoleptic and toxic * properties, biological activity, ability to manifest distant effects! (Rakhmanin et al., 1985; Eliseev et al., 1981, 1984, 2002; Krasovsky, Egorova, 1990; Wise, 1990; Lutsevich, 2005; Haig, 1989). In this connection, the goal of this work was an ecological microbiological study Conditions for the formation of drinking water quality in Saratov and the development of recommendations for optimizing water treatment. To achieve this goal, the following tasks were accomplished: 1 - to carry out microbiological monitoring of the water quality of the Volga River in the places of water intake in the city of Saratov and to assess toxicity by methods of biotesting; 2 - to analyze the qualitative and quantitative composition of aquatic micro biocoenoses; Identify antibiotic resistant strains of isolated heterotrophic bacteria; 3 - to evaluate the activity of water self-purification processes from the water intake sites of the city of Saratov in terms of the intensity of development and death of the water-saprophyte microflora; Intensity of biochemical consumption of oxygen and processes of mineralization of nitrogen-containing substances; 4 - conduct laboratory and analytical studies of water samples from urban water intake sites and in the process of water treatment; 5 - to study microbiological indicators of tap water in Saratov; To investigate the presence in the water of micromycetes and methods for their elimination; 6 - conduct sanitary and toxicological studies of the efficiency of water treatment according to the generally accepted methodology and the improved technological scheme. Scientific novelty. A complex ecological and microbiological study of the quality of drinking water in Saratov in the process of water treatment was conducted for the first time. An increase in the incidence of gram-negative microorganisms in the water of the Volga River in summer, not regulated by water and sanitation legislation, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. The interrelation between the quality of water in different places of water intake with the composition of the microbiota, indices of nutrient requirement index and the index of purity of water samples, chemical-analytical indicators is shown. The additional contamination of drinking water with micromycetes was proved in the system of urban water supply networks. It has been established that additional introduction to the generally accepted scheme of water treatment of active carbons allows providing higher ecological efficiency of water treatment and elimination of chemical and biological contamination. The results the obtained make a significant contribution to the development of ideas about the functioning of water microbiota in the chemical contamination of water bodies. The practical significance of the work. The established facts of the decline in the nutrient requirement index and the purity index of water samples of the Volga River and the changes in the association of aquatic microorganisms near the water intake sites of Saratov in the summer period 2002-2008. Indicate a limited capacity of water for self-cleaning and the need for additional cleaning methods. The conducted researches showed that the commonly combined method of water treatment does not allow to obtain drinking water of satisfactory quality. The treatment of water according to the improved scheme, normalizing its organoleptic properties according to the requirements of standards is offered. The necessity of additional methods of adsorption with active coals for purification of drinking water from micromycetes is experimentally proved. Methodical methods of ecological-microbiological water quality assessment are improved. The results of the research are introduced into the educational process of the Department of General Hygiene and Ecology and the Department of Hygiene of the Medical and Preventive Faculty of the Saratov State Medical University, the Department of Microbiology and Plant Physiology of the Saratov State University. N.G. Chernyshevsky and the Department of Ecology of the Saratov State Technical University. The approbation of work. The materials of the thesis were presented at scientific conferences of various ranks: the scientific and practical conference "Revival of the Volga and ways of solution" (Saratov, 1998); 3-rd scientific-practical conference "Hygienic problems of protecting the health of the population of the Russian regions in the new economic conditions" (Saratov, 2000), All-Russian scientific conference "Fundamental and applied aspects of the functioning of aquatic ecosystems: problems and perspectives, hydrobiology and ichthyology in the 21st century" ( Saratov, 2001), a scientific and practical conference "Ecology and Life Safety" (Penza, 2002), a scientific and practical conference with international participation "Environment and Health" (Saratov, 2003), a jubilee scientific Conference devoted to the 90th anniversary of the Department of General Hygiene and Ecology of the State Medical University of Saratov (Saratov, 2004), YI International Scientific and Practical Conference "Economics of Nature Management and Environmental Protection" (Penza, 2005), International Scientific Conference "Actual Problems of Ecology and Environmental Protection" (Macedonia , 2006), All-Russian scientific and practical conference "Problems of regional ecology in conditions of sustainable development" (Kirov, 2008), international scientific conference "Ecology and Life" (Penza, 2008); Scientific conferences of the Saratov State Medical University (Saratov, 2004, 2006). Publications. On the topic of the thesis 18 works have been published, including 9 articles, one of which is in the journal from the list of the Higher Attestation Commission of the Russian Federation. The main provisions that are put on the defense. 1. When conducting microbiological monitoring of water in places of water intake, it is necessary to take into account the incidence of not only common coliform bacteria, but also other gram-negative forms of bacteria, as well as antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. 2. The definition of integrated indicators of the functional activity of water microbicots: the index of water purity (K) and the index of trophicity (I), along with the generally accepted indicators, allows us to more informatively assess the water's ability to self-purification and the need for additional methods of water purification. 3. Introduction to the conventional scheme of water treatment of additional methods of adsorption with active coals allows to exclude contamination by micromycetes and ensure high quality of drinking water. Conclusion of the thesis on the topic "Microbiology", Logashova, Natalia Borisovna, Conclusions. 1. Autochthonous microorganisms prevail in the microbiocenoses of the Volga River water from different places of water intake in the city of Saratov - more than 80%, mainly representatives of gram-positive bacteria; The content of allochthonous microorganisms is different. 2. The number of gram-negative conditionally pathogenic strains of bacteria in VK-1 water samples increased during the summer period of 2002-2007. From 21.0 to 46.4%. The prevalence of enterobacteria (78.3%), an increase in the frequency of E. coli (40.8%), Enterobacter sp. (24.0%), as well as the appearance of bacteria Acinetobacter sp. (6.3%) and Aeromonas sp. (5.4%). 3. Among enterobacteria released from water in urban water intake areas, 10.4% of strains had resistance to two or three antibiotics; And 4,5% of strains - to five used drugs (penicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, levomycetin). 4. Decline in the summer period 2006-2008. The values of the trophicity index (up to 0.7 and 0.64) and the purity index (up to 84 and 48) for water samples of the Volga River in the places of water intake in the city of Saratov (VC-2.3 and VK-1, respectively) indicate a limited capacity of water To self-cleaning and the need for additional methods of water treatment. 5. To evaluate sorption methods for disinfecting water from micromycetes, it is recommended to use C. Albicans as a sanitary-demonstration microorganism. 6. Additional introduction to the generally accepted scheme of water treatment of active carbons allows to provide more effective water purification from microbiological contamination and provides high quality of drinking water. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS. The proposed methodological approach to assessing the quality of the Volga River water at the water intake sites in the city of Saratov using a set of biotesting methods at various test sites can be used to: - identify the spectrum of genetic and toxic effects induced by industrial pollutants in the aquatic environment; - detection of pollutants of technogenic origin specific for eukaryotic organisms; - Quantitative evaluation of genotoxic activity of natural and industrial pollutants; - conduct an integral assessment of the degree of danger of eco toxicants in aquatic environment objects, by a set of quantitative indicators.